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learn about medical technologies, complete article

medical technology

ABSTRACT

Technology is a lot more general than people think. Sure, a computer is an example of technology, we all know that. But did you know that even simple things like wheels, locks, and faucets are technology too? Technology is just the application of knowledge for a practical purpose, whether in the home, in industry, or elsewhere. Technology is used everywhere, but it can be a matter of life and death in the medical professions. Technology has literally saved millions of lives. Medical technology is simply the use of our knowledge to build objects to protect living organisms from disease or death. And we've gotten very good at it.



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1-Introduction
 Medical technologies are devices that extend and/or improve life. They can reduce pain, injury or a handicap as well as increase the effectiveness of patient care. Medical technologies do not just refer to devices, but also to advancements in care such as operating rooms, rooms for lab our, ambulances, biopsy labs, etc…

 It is important to distinguish technologies from another medium through which actions are taken in medicine techniques. Medical techniques are procedures mediated through the human senses rather than through objects. Examples are percussion, pulse-feeling, and psychoanalysis. This perspective on medical technology will be used in this entry.
 This imperative character of medical technology not only applies to the medical profession, but also to patients who frequently find it very difficult to refuse medical examinations or treatments. It attempts to discover relationships with decision theory, particularly concerning “anticipated decision regret:” The fact that prevention of regret plays an important role in the use of medical technology is illustrated through a number of examples: Kidney Dialysis, Artificial hearts. Modern medical technologies have generated new possibilities and new hopes. Instead of accepting sickness and death as the inevitable Product of fate or God’s will, we increasingly expect that cures will be found, and that they will be made available when we need them. But along with rising expectations come rising costs [1].
2-Medical-Technologist

 An individual with a Bachelor of Science in Medical Technology who is educated in laboratory techniques and instrumentation used in the diagnosis and evaluation of disease and who has a strong knowledge of human body systems and related diseases and disorders.
 Bachelor's degree programs in medical technology, clinical laboratory science or allied health technologies all prepare students for work in this field. These 4-year programs are heavily focused on the natural sciences and often include an internship. Common course topics include anatomy and physiology, lab management, immunology, clinical microbiology, parasitology and medical ethics [2].
3-Medical-Technologies

 Despite problems, most agree technology has improved medicine and longevity for human beings. Technology has also reduced agony associated with illness: Dialysis for kidneys, Artificial Hearts and transplants.
 Material technology is not solely responsible for improvement in health: Nutrition, sanitation, and personal hygiene have made a significant impact. As long as we live, experience illness, and die there will be a demand for medical (technological) intervention (sociology of health and health care).
 There are a number of reasons for this anomaly, but chief among them is the higher concentration of medical specialists in regions that have the most aggressive medical practices. Medical care in regions with large proportions of specialists is characterized by an excessive use of tests and procedures, extended periods of hospitalization, and a fragmented approach to patient care that sharply contrasts with the holistic approach of primary-care physicians [1].
4-Expenditures

 Expenditures for medical attention are not weighed against other expenditures: We may forgo a car for a down payment on a new house. But we will not forgo heart surgery for some other good or service. Medical technology inappropriate when:
 Unnecessary: Patient has condition too advanced to respond to treatment.
 Unsafe: Complications outweigh possible benefits.
 Unkind: After treatment, quality of life no better or worse than before Weight loss surgery .Five Norwegian women undergoing the irreversible gastric bypass procedure.
 Example: More specifically, we focus on the experiences of women whose life situation became worse after weight loss surgery. The material draws on qualitative interviews of five Norwegian women undergoing the irreversible gastric bypass procedure. Our findings illustrate that the women lived seemingly “normal” lives prior to the surgery with few signs of illness.
 Worries about future illness as well as social stigma because of their body shape motivated them to undergo weight loss surgery. After the surgery, however, their situation was profoundly changed and their lives were dramatically restricted.
 Chronic pain, loss of energy, as well as feelings of shame and failure for having these problems not only limited their social lives but it also made them less physically active. In addition, they had difficulties taking care of their children, and functioning satisfactorily at work. Accordingly, the women gradually felt more “disabled,” regarding themselves as “outsiders” whose problems needed to be kept private.
 The results highlight some “subtle” consequences of weight loss surgery, particularly the shame and stigma experienced by those whose lives became dramatically worse. Living in a society where negative impacts of weight loss surgery are more or less neglected in research as well as in the public debate the women seemed to suffer in silence. Their problems were clearly present and felt in the body but not talked about and shared with others. [3]
5-Kidney-Dialysis

 Kidney Failure is the fourth largest killer. Significantly improved by medical technology usually results in incapacitation and premature death. Many are afflicted: Urinary diseases are the nation’s fourth largest killer, right behind cardiovascular Diseases, cancer, and pneumonia. Development of Dialysis Machine:
 Willem Kolff—Dutch doctor (1940’s) it was therefore necessary to select some patients for dialysis and to reject others the Seattle Artificial Kidney Center, established an Admissions and Policy Committee to screen applications and determine who would get dialyzed and who would not. The committee was intended to reflect the community as a whole, being initially comprised of a lawyer, a minister, a housewife, a labor leader, a government official, a banker, and a surgeon, as well as two physician advisors. The members of the committee made their first selective cut by only accepting patients from the state of Washington, and by eliminating children along with adults over the age of 45.
 Having done this, the committee then applied a set of criteria that took into account the personal characteristics of prospective patients. According to one report, these included the “sex of patient, marital status, and number of dependents; income; net worth; emotional stability, with regard to patient’s ability to accept the treatment; educational background; nature of occupation; past performance and future potential, and names of people who could serve as references.” As might be expected, making life-or-death decisions on the basis of the presumed worth of the patient generated a fair amount of indignation in some quarters. [1]
6-Replacing-Broken-Hearts

 Bypass grafting (“bypass surgery”) became the most common surgical intervention. In bypass surgery, a segment of a vein is removed from the leg or chest and spliced into one or more of the five coronary arteries that transport blood from the heart. In extreme cases, all five arteries may receive this treatment. Heart transplant is a possibility but not a viable solution 75, 000 need heart transplant but only around 2,000 donors available. In 1982 may fairly be deemed the beginning because that was when doctors first put a permanent artificial heart into a man who faced imminent death, his heart fast failing. The Jarvik- 7 was named for its designer, Dr. Robert K. Jarvik.
 The chief surgeon was Dr. William C. DeVries, who led a team at the University of Utah. The patient, Dr. Barney B. Clark, 61, was a retired dentist from Seattle who agreed to this experimental effort to prolong his life. The operation was a success. Dr. Clark did live on the Jarvik 7, for 112 days. But they were not 112 good days. Some news accounts called them “gruesome.”
 Tethered full time to an air compressor the size of a dishwasher, which powered his man made heart, Dr. Clark suffered convulsions, kidney failure and memory lapses before succumbing to the inevitable. Dr. Devries’s second patient, William J. Schroeder, fared better, although that may depend on one’s definition of “better.”
 Mr. Schroeder, 52, a retired federal worker, got his mechanical heart in 1984. He lived with it for 620 days. At first, his prospects seemed bright. But before long his condition deteriorated, with a succession of blood clots and resulting strokes that weakened him so severely, he could barely speak. [4]
 Currently (2013), Left Ventricular Assist Device (LVAD) the LVAD is the most common type of VAD. It helps the left ventricle pump blood to the aorta. The aorta is the main artery that carries oxygen-rich blood from your heart to your body.
7-Diagnostic-Technologies

 Diagnosis is the process of identifying what is wrong with someone. Medical diagnosis technology starts with simple things: stethoscopes to listen to someone's heart, hypodermic needles to take blood samples for analysis, and blood pressure cuffs (otherwise known as 'sphygmomanometers'. But they get much more complex.
 An MRI scanner, for example, creates images of the tissues inside your body - even the brain! We do this to check for organ abnormalities, to look for cancerous tissue, to spot torn ligaments, and many other uses. It works by surrounding a person with large magnet. This aligns the magnetic particles in a person's body. When you take away the magnetic field, the speed at which they return to normal is different depending on the type of tissue, and this can be detected and used to create an image. Other technologies that are used to take images include CT scanners, and x-ray machines.
 Heart monitors keep track of a person's heartbeat. You might have heard them beeping dramatically on medical shows. We can also look at the way a person's heart is working using an EKG (or electrocardiogram) machine, which sends electrical pulses through a person's body to check the heart's electrical (nerve) activity. Doctors might use one to determine if they suspect a heart attack in a patient, or to check the effect of heart medication. [5]
 Smart pill: Capsule endoscopy is used to examine parts of the gastrointestinal tract that cannot be seen with other types of endoscopy. Upper endoscopy, also called EGD, uses a camera attached to a long flexible tube to view the esophagus, the stomach and the beginning of the first part of the small intestine called the duodenum.
 A colonoscopy, inserted through the rectum, can view the colon and the distal portion of the small intestine, the terminal ileum. These two types of endoscopy cannot visualize the majority of the middle portion of the gastrointestinal tract, the small intestine. Capsule endoscopy is useful when disease is suspected in the small intestine, and can sometimes diagnose sources of occult bleeding [blood visible microscopically only] or causes of abdominal pain such as Crohn's disease, or peptic ulcers.
 Capsule endoscopy can be used to diagnose problems in the small intestine, but unlike EGD or colonoscopy it cannot treat pathology that may be discovered. Capsule endoscopy transfers the captured images wirelessly to an external receiver worn by the patient using one of appropriate frequency bands. The collected images are then transferred to a computer for diagnosis, review and display.
 A transmitted radio-frequency signal can be used to accurately estimate the location of the capsule and to track it in real time inside the body and gastrointestinal tract. [6]
8-Halfway-Technologies

 Medical technologies often palliative treats kidney disease but not the causes of disease. Technology has extended life and made it more comfortable but has not addresses causes and conditions. [5]
9-Global medical technology market

 This statistic depicts the market share of the global medical technology market in 2013 and a prediction for 2020, by region. In 2020, China is expected to have 12% share. China's Food and Drug Administration is encouraging new developments in the health care industry and to be considered innovative, a product must be a major improvement from the previous product.

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